|Harmonized System||Periods||Balassa index (%)||Share of chapter in total exports (%)||Distribution of exports Exports of Dutch products||Distribution of exports Re-exports|
|02 Meat and edible meat offal||2020||1.9||1.8||88.2||11.8|
|03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and...||2020||1.4||0.6||72.5||27.5|
|06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs...||2020||19.4||2.0||94.5||5.5|
|07 Edible vegetables and certain root...||2020||3.4||1.5||82.1||17.9|
|08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of cit...||2020||2.5||1.4||21.9||78.1|
|09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices||2020||1.1||0.2||50.6||49.4|
|12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; m...||2020||3.0||0.8||50.3||49.7|
|13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegeta...||2020||0.3||0.0||62.6||37.4|
|15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils ...||2020||2.3||1.0||60.1||39.9|
|17 Sugars and sugar confectionery||2020||1.5||0.3||76.1||23.9|
|18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations||2020||2.1||0.9||67.3||32.7|
|22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar||2020||1.0||1.2||71.2||28.8|
|23 Residues and waste from the food i...||2020||2.1||1.0||71.0||29.0|
|24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco s...||2020||0.5||0.2||73.5||26.5|
|25 Salt; sulphur; earths and stone; p...||2020||1.0||0.2||62.8||37.2|
|26 Ores, slag and ash||2020||1.1||0.2||21.8||78.2|
|27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and pr...||2020||3.1||9.2||68.8||31.2|
|33 Essential oils and resinoids; perf...||2020||0.6||0.8||65.3||34.7|
|39 Plastics and articles thereof||2020||1.0||4.3||74.6||25.4|
|40 Rubber and articles thereof||2020||0.7||0.8||44.8||55.2|
|41 Raw hides and skins (other than fu...||2020||0.4||0.1||69.0||31.0|
|42 Articles of leather; saddlery and ...||2020||0.6||0.3||33.7||66.3|
|43 Furskins and artificial fur; manuf...||2020||0.3||0.0||69.4||30.6|
|44 Wood and articles of wood; wood ch...||2020||0.3||0.3||64.3||35.7|
|45 Cork and articles of cork||2020||0.0||0.0||50.8||49.2|
|48 Paper and paperboard; articles of ...||2020||0.6||0.9||75.5||24.5|
|54 Man-made filaments; strip and the ...||2020||1.4||0.2||72.9||27.1|
|56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; speci...||2020||0.6||0.1||74.6||25.4|
|57 Carpets and other textile floor co...||2020||2.8||0.2||82.8||17.2|
|61 Articles of apparel and clothing a...||2020||1.0||1.0||1.1||98.9|
|62 Articles of apparel and clothing a...||2020||0.9||1.0||0.4||99.6|
|64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; pa...||2020||0.7||0.6||34.3||65.7|
|65 Headgear and parts thereof||2020||1.3||0.1||51.0||49.0|
|67 Prepared feathers and down and art...||2020||2.1||0.0||54.2||45.8|
|70 Glass and glassware||2020||0.4||0.2||60.4||39.6|
|72 Iron and steel||2020||0.9||1.9||67.9||32.1|
|74 Copper and articles thereof||2020||0.5||0.4||49.5||50.5|
|75 Nickel and articles thereof||2020||1.3||0.1||19.7||80.3|
|76 Aluminium and articles thereof||2020||0.7||0.8||55.8||44.2|
|78 Lead and articles thereof||2020||0.4||0.0||89.6||10.4|
|79 Zinc and articles thereof||2020||1.6||0.2||56.2||43.8|
|80 Tin and articles thereof||2020||1.6||0.0||16.6||83.4|
|85 Electrical machinery and equipment...||2020||1.1||11.2||21.5||78.5|
|88 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts th...||2020||0.2||0.3||32.6||67.4|
|89 Ships, boats and floating structures||2020||1.7||0.8||74.0||26.0|
|91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof||2020||0.7||0.1||61.1||38.9|
|92 Musical instruments; parts and acc...||2020||1.2||0.0||35.4||64.6|
|93 Arms and ammunition; parts and acc...||2020||0.1||0.0||59.8||40.2|
|95 Toys, games and sports requisites;...||2020||1.1||0.6||50.0||50.0|
This table describes the export specialisation of Dutch exports using the Balassa index. A Balassa index higher than 1 indicates specialisation in a product. If the index is below 1, there is no specialisation in that product.
The table also shows the share of each product chapter of the Harmonized System in total Dutch exports. Furthermore, it shows both the share of products made in the Netherlands as the re-exports of this chapter.
Data available from: 1996.
Status of the figures:
The figures are definite.
Changes as of December 3, 2021:
The final figures for 2020 have been added.
When will new figures be published?
The figures become available in the fourth quarter after the year under review.
- Balassa index
- The Balassa index measures the degree of specialisation of the Dutch export products. A Balassa index higher than 1 indicates specialisation in that product; an index lower than 1 means that there is no specialisation in that product. In this table Dutch exports in a given product are compared to the exports of the EU (excluding the Netherlands). For the period 1996-2016 this comparison is with the EU-15, for 2017-2020 (January) with the EU-28 and from 2020 (February) with the EU-27.
For example, the Balassa index for cereals in 2009 is calculated as follows:
- Exports of cereals by the Netherlands: 397 million euro
- Total exports of the Netherlands: 309,359 million euro
- Exports of cereals by EU-15 (excluding the Netherlands): 9,916 million euro
- Total exports by EU-15 (excluding the Netherlands): 2,572,634 million euro
The Balassa index then equals:
(397 / 309,359 million euro)
--------- divided by --------------- = 0.3
(9,916 / 2,572,634 million euro)
The outcome is 0.3 so it is less than 1 which means that the Netherlands has no export specialisation for the export product cereals compared with the EU-15 member states.
- The share of the commodities in this chapter in the exports of all commodities together.
- Distribution of exports
- Exports of Dutch products
- Exports of commodities produced or manufactured in the Netherlands.
- Goods transported via the Netherlands, which are temporarily owned by a resident of the Netherlands, without any significant industrial processing.
Re-exports include among other things commodities that are cleared through customs by Dutch distribution centres and are delivered to other countries (within Europe). Unlike transit trade, re-exports are part of Dutch imports and exports.