Macroeconomics

Below you will find a number of macroeconomic indicators of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. In the graphs, the month or quarter of the referendum is marked. At the bottom of the page you will find references to datasets and relevant external sources.

Graph 1: Gross Domestic Product
Graph 2: Consumer prices
Graph 3: Unemployment rate
Graph 4: Index of hourly labour costs
Graph 5: Employee and self-employed in the Netherlands
Graph 6: Employee and self-employed in the United Kingdom

Gross Domestic Product (volume, seasonally adjusted) (index, 2010=100)
YearQuarterThe NetherlandsUnited Kingdom
2010Q199.299.0
Q299.699.9
Q3100.0100.5
Q4101.2100.6
2011Q1101.8101.4
Q2101.7101.5
Q3101.7101.8
Q4101.0101.9
2012Q1100.9102.6
Q2100.9102.6
Q3100.5103.8
Q499.8103.5
2013Q1100.1104.2
Q299.9104.8
Q3100.5105.7
Q4101.1106.2
2014Q1101.0107.1
Q2101.6108.0
Q3101.9108.7
Q4102.8109.5
2015Q1103.4110.0
Q2103.7110.6
Q3104.1111.1
Q4104.2111.9
2016Q1105.1112.2
Q2105.4112.4
Q3106.5113.0
Q4107.3113.8
2017Q1107.8114.3
Q2108.8114.6
Q3109.6115.2
Q4110.6115.6
2018Q1111.3115.7
Q2112.1116.2
Q3112.2117.0
Q4112.8117.2
2019Q1113.3117.8
Source: CBS, Eurostat

Consumer prices (HICP) (year-on-year % change)
YearMonthThe NetherlandsUnited Kingdom
2012January2.93.6
February2.93.4
March2.93.5
April2.83.0
May2.52.8
June2.52.4
July2.62.6
August2.62.5
September2.52.2
October3.32.7
November3.22.7
December3.42.7
2013January3.22.7
February3.22.8
March3.22.8
April2.82.4
May3.12.7
June3.22.9
July3.12.8
August2.82.7
September2.42.7
October1.32.2
November1.22.1
December1.42.0
2014January0.81.9
February0.41.7
March0.11.6
April0.61.8
May0.11.5
June0.31.9
July0.31.6
August0.41.5
September0.31.2
October0.41.3
November0.31.0
December-0.10.5
2015January-0.70.3
February-0.50.0
March-0.30.0
April0.0-0.1
May0.70.1
June0.50.0
July0.80.1
August0.40.0
September0.3-0.1
October0.4-0.1
November0.40.1
December0.50.2
2016January0.20.3
February0.30.3
March0.50.5
April-0.20.3
May-0.20.3
June-0.20.5
July-0.60.6
August0.10.6
September-0.11.0
October0.30.9
November0.41.2
December0.71.6
2017January1.61.8
February1.72.3
March0.62.3
April1.42.7
May0.72.9
June1.02.6
July1.52.6
August1.52.9
September1.43.0
October1.33.0
November1.53.1
December1.23.0
2018January1.53.0
February1.32.7
March1.02.5
April1.02.4
May1.92.4
June1.72.4
July1.92.5
August1.92.7
September1.62.4
October1.92.4
November1.82.3
December1.82.1
2019January2.01.8
February2.61.9
March2.91.9
April3.02.1

Unemployment rate (%)
YearMonthThe NetherlandsUnited Kingdom
2010January5.17.9
February5.18.0
March5.17.9
April5.07.9
May5.07.8
June5.07.7
July5.07.7
August5.07.6
September5.07.7
October4.97.8
November4.97.8
December5.07.9
2011January4.97.8
February4.97.7
March4.87.7
April4.77.8
May4.88.0
June4.78.0
July4.98.1
August4.98.2
September5.18.3
October5.28.4
November5.48.4
December5.48.3
2012January5.58.2
February5.58.2
March5.58.2
April5.78.0
May5.77.9
June5.77.9
July5.97.8
August5.87.8
September6.07.7
October6.17.8
November6.27.8
December6.47.8
2013January6.67.9
February6.87.8
March6.97.7
April7.07.8
May7.17.8
June7.37.7
July7.57.7
August7.57.6
September7.67.3
October7.67.1
November7.67.2
December7.77.1
2014January7.86.8
February7.96.7
March7.86.6
April7.76.4
May7.66.3
June7.46.1
July7.36.0
August7.25.9
September7.15.9
October7.15.8
November7.15.6
December7.25.6
2015January7.25.5
February7.15.5
March7.05.4
April7.05.6
May6.95.6
June6.95.5
July6.85.4
August6.85.3
September6.85.2
October6.95.0
November6.75.0
December6.65.0
2016January6.55.0
February6.55.0
March6.44.9
April6.44.9
May6.34.9
June6.14.9
July6.04.9
August5.84.7
September5.74.7
October5.64.7
November5.64.6
December5.44.6
2017January5.34.6
February5.34.5
March5.14.5
April5.14.4
May5.14.4
June4.94.3
July4.84.3
August4.74.2
September4.74.2
October4.54.2
November4.44.3
December4.44.2
2018January4.24.2
February4.14.2
March3.94.1
April3.94.0
May3.93.9
June3.94.0
July3.84.0
August3.94.1
September3.74.0
October3.73.9
November3.53.9
December3.63.8
2019January3.63.8
February3.43.7
March3.33.7
Source: CBS, Eurostat

Hourly labour cost (index, 2016=100)
YearQuarterThe NetherlandsUnited Kingdom
2012Q194.192.4
Q295.093.0
Q395.893.1
Q496.793.0
2013Q196.993.4
Q296.693.8
Q397.793.5
Q496.493.7
2014Q197.494.3
Q299.694.2
Q397.694.5
Q499.695.6
2015Q198.297.2
Q299.097.3
Q398.998.5
Q498.698.2
2016Q199.899.2
Q299.3100.4
Q3100.7100.1
Q4100.2100.3
2017Q1100.6100.3
Q2101.2102.2
Q3101.7103.4
Q4102.4104.1
2018Q1103.3105.1
Q2103.2105.1
Q3104.3105.6
Q4105.0107.8
2019Q1104.9107.2
Source: CBS, Eurostat

Jobs of employees and self-employed in the Netherlands (million)
YearQuarterJobs
2010Q19.727
Q29.785
Q39.797
Q49.817
2011Q19.871
Q29.917
Q39.928
Q49.925
2012Q19.921
Q29.905
Q39.874
Q49.836
2013Q19.783
Q29.761
Q39.751
Q49.740
2014Q19.728
Q29.744
Q39.764
Q49.794
2015Q19.833
Q29.866
Q39.900
Q49.940
2016*Q19.955
Q210.009
Q310.051
Q410.098
2017*Q110.152
Q210.209
Q310.281
Q410.355
2018*Q110.423
Q210.475
Q310.533
Q410.588
2019*Q110.644

Jobs of employees and self-employed in United Kingdom (million)
Title  Jobs
2010Q129.013
Q229.192
Q329.385
Q429.324
2011Q129.441
Q229.447
Q329.281
Q429.342
2012Q129.454
Q229.667
Q329.759
Q429.908
2013Q129.839
Q229.938
Q330.106
Q430.290
2014Q130.532
Q230.705
Q330.833
Q430.944
2015Q131.156
Q231.110
Q331.333
Q431.540
2016Q131.572
Q231.747
Q331.810
Q431.845
2017Q131.946
Q232.065
Q332.063
Q432.154
2018Q132.343
Q232.386
Q332.431
Q432.597